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Yet, as entropy isn't really a estate that may be measured directl y (there aren't any entropy meters), it can be crucial that the by-product (and therefore the scan) be remodeled right into a shape that contains without delay measurable houses. that's what the subsequent Maxwell relation does for us. strain, temperature, and quantity are simply measured houses. 03. 7 The relation (aG j ap)r = V indicates that the Gibbs functionality of a approach raises with p at consistent T in percentage to the importance of its quantity.
B = RTB' [Problem 1. 18] = (8. 206 x 10- 2 dm three atm okay- I mol-I) x (298 okay) x (0. 082 atm- I ) = 12. 0dm3 mol - I - y I. = five. 3963 + zero. 046074x R = zero. 99549 five. nine ~ five. eight I", E five. 7 b :§: five. 6 ,::, five. five five. four zero 2 four 6 p/( 104 Pa) P1. 21 eight 10 12 determine 1. three The serious temperature is that temperature above which the fuel can't be liquefied through the appliance of strain by myself. less than the serious temperature levels, liquid and gasoline, might coexist at equilibrium, and within the two-phase area there's a couple of molar quantity such as a similar stipulations of temperature and strain.
H = ! :! ,. U + ! :! ,. (pV) = ! :! ,. u + nR! :! "T so ! :! ,. U = ! :! "H - nR! :! "T ! :! ,. U = 2. zero x 10 J mol - I - (2. zero mol) x (8. 3145 J okay- I mol - I) x (277 - 250) okay three = eleven. 6 x 10 three J mol - I E2. 14(b) In an adiabatic strategy, q = w = -Pex ! :! " V = I @]. paintings opposed to a continuing exterior strain is -(78. 5x1Q three Pa)x(4xI5-15)dm three _1_ three 1 I three - . three. five x 10 J. (IOdm m- ) ! :! ,. U = q + w = 1-3. five x 10 three J I one could additionally relate adiabatic paintings to ! :! "T (eqn 2. 27): w = Cv! :! "T = n(Cp,m - R)! :! "T ! :! ,. T= !
Sixteen) (b) Use the Clausius-Clapeyron equation [Exercise four. 8(a)] At T2 = 342. 2 ok, P2 = 1. 000 atm; therefore at 25 °C In I = P 29. T x 103JmOI-I) ( eight. 314J okay- I mol- I X (I --298. 2 okay - I) = -1. 509 342. 2 ok --- PI = 10. 22 atm 1= 168 Torr At60 °C, In PI = - 29. T x 103JmOI - I) x (1 I-) = -0. 276 -- - -( eight. three 14JK-Imol- 1 333. 2K 342. 2K PI = 10. seventy six atm 1= 576Torr E4. 9(b) ! :! ,. T=Tfus(lOMPa) -Tfus(O. IMPa) = Tfu s! :! "pM ! :! ,. ! :! ,. fusH (I) - p [See Exercise4. five (b)] ! :! "fusH = 6. 01kJmol - 1 ! :! ,. T= (273.
3102/ 2. 2990) - 1 - (MAr/MN) - 1 r - I) = 2. 3102 - 1 2. 2990 (2. 3102/ 2. 2990) - I = (39. 95gmol 1)/ (28. 013gmol I ~ - I) = L. 2:2.!..! J . This worth for the mole fraction of argon in air is with regards to the modem worth. remark. recommendations to purposes P1. 25 I t = 103 kg. think three hundred t in step with day. n(S02) V = three hundred 103 kg sixty four x 10- three kg mol = nRT = p P1. 27 X I = four. 7 x 106 mol. three 1 6 (4. 7 x 10 mol) x (0. 082 dm atm ok- mol - I) x 1073 ok 1. 0atrn = 14. 1 x 108 dm three 1. The strain on the base of a column of peak H is p = pgH (Example 1.