By Clayton Donnell
Publisher: Osprey Publishing
Publication Date: 2011-04-19
Number of Pages: 64
Website: Amazon, LibraryThing, Google Books, Goodreads
Synopsis from Amazon:
The conflict of Verdun is without doubt one of the foremost and notorious battles in background. whereas the conflict is remembered for acts of horror, bravery, and honor, it's also heavily entwined with the hoop of fortifications outfitted to safeguard the most important city of Verdun at the Meuse River that lay within the course of the German attack.
When one thinks of Verdun, one additionally thinks of Douaumont and Vaux, forts at the some distance fringe of the battlefield that got here to represent the French fight to regain their land from the Germans. within the months after its seize, fortress Douaumont's turtle-shaped heights stood as an final goal and motive force for the French military. The poor strive against that happened within the tunnels of citadel Vaux serves for example of ways the French tried to carry directly to the final inch of land to the final man.
From 1874 to the outbreak of worldwide battle I in 1914, building and development of the fortifications of Verdun endured continuous. It used to be thought of via army engineers to be the most powerful position in Europe and certainly it could were when it comes to flanking fireplace assurance of the battlefield, firepower from its 155mmnn and 75mm weapons and howitzers, and its concrete safeguard. even though, none of this got here to the brain of basic Pétain whilst, after the unanticipated and successive destruction of the forts of Liège, Namur, Antwerp, and Maubeuge by means of the German heavy siege weapons, he determined that everlasting forts have been not of significant value.
As a consequence, all of Verdun's artillery items now not in fastened turrets have been got rid of and the castle garrisons stripped right down to upkeep crews. therefore, it used to be a really assorted citadel that confronted the Germans in 1916. even if, because the conflict advanced and the worth of the forts, not just as patriotic symbols yet strategic goals and strong strongholds used to be regained, the tide grew to become back, affecting not just the result of the conflict, yet destiny army engineering recommendations and ideas that will eventually produce the Maginot Line.
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Extra info for Fortifications of Verdun 1874-1917 (Fortress, Volume 103)
To appreciate the real influence of the hot shell on masonry fortifications, it's also very important to take a short examine the advance of artillery because the 1850s. within the mid-1850s, the Krupp armaments enterprise in Germany designed a brand new kind of gun barrel with a collection of parallel grooves etched in a spiral development at the within floor of the barrel. This technique used to be referred to as ‘rifling’ and the spiral grooves brought on the shell, now within the form of a bullet (or ‘torpedo’), to fly a New external line – Threats from the alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy identify building date Modernization overall price date (francs) males Machine-gun turrets 75mm turrets 155mm turrets Armoured observatories 1888–95 thirteen – Vaux 1881 1904–06 2.
Ospreypublishing. com would ensue later); they have been huge gun batteries with parapets for infantry defence and ramparts for the weapons on best, with safety for the warriors in masonry shelters under floor. The redoubts have been trapezoidal suit and surrounded by means of a dry ditch defended through caponiers – casemates of 1 or storeys in peak for rifles and small cannon that have been outfitted around the ditch. the trench casemates in either the redoubts and the forts have been defended via rapid-firing cannon. The Reffye seven-calibre version was once initially chosen yet was once later switched to the 12-Culasse version 1884.
Fortress Vacherauville and the Ouvrage citadel Vaux was once modernized among 1888 and 1912. The protecting caponiers (A) have been switched over to counterscarp casemates (E). The weapons at the cavalier (B) have been changed with armoured turrets (F). The barracks (C) used to be bolstered with a layer of concrete. The centre of the castle was once surrounded by way of a ditch (D). (Marcus Massing assortment) ultimate new release – all concrete identify building date Modernization date overall fee (francs) males Machine-gun turrets 75mm turrets 155mm turrets Armoured observatories forty three – los angeles Falouse 1906 n/a 550,000 eighty 1 1 2 forty four – Vacherauville 1910 n/a 2.
The Germans have been not able to maneuver. The shelling elevated at the twentieth, shaking the castle always. The Schneider-Creusot 400mm railway gun. Six pictures from this gun on castle Douaumont on 23 October 1916 ignited a munitions depot deep in the citadel and brought on it to give up. The gun during this photo is being fired through US infantrymen. (National data of the united states) fifty one © Osprey Publishing • www. ospreypublishing. com 52 © Osprey Publishing • www. ospreypublishing. com Barracks of citadel Douaumont. Concrete used to be extra to the masonry façade yet was once regularly chipped away via German and French bombardments in 1916.
The NCOs slept within the comparable rooms because the males whereas the officials have been positioned in a separate wing of the barracks. Barracks rooms more often than not housed 60 males in keeping with room (14 beds that slept 4 enlisted males every one and beds for 4 NCOs). every one officer was once given 6m2 of residing area and a personal cubicle. The commander had a unmarried room just about his workplace and the telegraph station. every one guy was once supplied with his personal drowsing area, composed of wood planks laid on most sensible of a wrought-iron mattress body with degrees, that may sleep 4 males, with on every one point (see photo on p.