Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in Twentieth-Century Europe

By Jan-Werner Mülller

This booklet is the 1st significant account of political proposal in twentieth-century Europe, either West and East, to seem because the finish of the chilly struggle. Skillfully mixing highbrow, political, and cultural background, Jan-Werner Müller elucidates the information that formed the interval of ideological extremes prior to 1945 and the liberalization of West ecu politics after the second one global conflict. He additionally deals brilliant pics of recognized in addition to unjustly forgotten political thinkers and the activities and associations they inspired.

Müller will pay specific realization to principles complicated to justify fascism and the way they relate to the distinct form of liberal democracy that used to be created in postwar Western Europe. He additionally explains the effect of the Nineteen Sixties and neoliberalism, finishing with a severe review of today's self-consciously post-ideological age.

Review
" [An] notable survey of 20th-century eu political thought.”—Tony Barber, monetary Times
(Tony Barber monetary occasions 2011-08-20)

'This is a pathbreaking research within the highbrow background of Europe in our time. Analysing principles that had political influence, Jan-Werner Mülller illuminates a unending debate approximately real and fake democracy.' - Timothy Garton Ash
(Timothy Garton Ash)

'The such a lot leading edge components of this admirably thorough and complete publication take care of the now not so liberal roots of the liberal political associations and practices that got here to fruition in post-war Europe. What moves me is the balanced therapy of advancements in Western and japanese Europe.' - Jürgen Habermas
(J�rgen Habermas)

'Ideology is where the place concept and perform, philosophy and historical past, meet. comprehend this "in-between" and also you are good in your approach to realizing the private dynamics that form glossy political life. during this illuminating learn Jan-Werner Müller is helping us see the adventure of twentieth-century Europe, East and West, in a clean gentle by means of exhibiting how its attribute ideologies built, functioned, and tailored to the realm they created. by means of targeting "political idea that concerns politically" Müller takes us past the straightforward tales we have now inherited approximately revolution and response, post-war reconstruction, the chilly battle, the Sixties, and lots more and plenty else. via the tip he places us in an improved place to appreciate the forces at paintings in modern eu politics and the unusual charm of the "anti-political" ideology that governs our time.' - Mark Lilla, writer of The Reckless brain: Intellectuals in Politics
(Mark Lilla)

'The nice success of Jan Werner Müller's Contesting Democracy is to steer us accurately around the tremendous unruly manifestos of ecu political principles, from the appalling doctrines that helped generate the totalitarian regimes and international wars to the uneasy decency of our personal period, with no sacrificing the reader's experience of urgency and signifiance.' - Charles S. Maier
(Charles Maier)

'Jan-Werner Müller’s Contesting Democracy is the main philosophically refined and topically complete research of political principles in 20th- century Europe but to be had. It shows a masterful command of basic texts, archival resources, and myriad secondary literatures. Müller assembles for political theorists, highbrow historians and social scientists formerly disparate items of intellectual-political lifestyles from the final, such a lot incomprehensible century on that ceaselessly at a loss for words and infinitely complicated continent. by means of so expertly conveying the complete importance of communism, fascism, liberalism, social democracy and Christian democracy, Müller makes the ecu 20th century even more fathomable from a old, ethical and political point of view than any earlier paintings, in any language.' - John P. McCormick, writer of Machiavellian Democracy
(John P. McCormick)

“…… [A] effective examine of the influence of mass democracy on eu political cultures.”—David Marquand, the hot Statesman
(David Marquand the hot Statesman 2011-08-22)

“…..[An] very good book…..Müller offers an insightful and entire review of the advance of political principles in 20th-century Europe that takes in Fascism, Communism, social democracy, liberalism, and lots more and plenty else.—Jeremy Jennings, perspective Magazine
(Jeremy Jennings point of view journal 2011-09-13)

“Muller’s profound and stimulating ebook has a lot to provide, either to experts and for others.”—Roger Morgan, occasions greater Education
(Roger Morgan instances larger schooling 2011-10-06)

“There is not any bankruptcy of the 20 th century’s ecu political suggestion that isn't luminously analysed during this fantastically written, lucidly argued and immensely enticing book.”—Vladimir Tismaneanu, overseas Affairs
(Vladimir Tismaneanu foreign Affairs 2012-01-01)

"Jan-Werner Muller has written an excellent booklet which for the 1st time supplies us a competent synthesis of twentieth-century eu political thought." eu overview of History
(European evaluation of historical past 2012-08-27)

"The originality of Contesting Democracy stems in solid half from the range of its topic, its good thought-out constitution, and, final yet no longer least, its vigorous anecdotes and noteworthy rates. Müller writes elegantly and has a superb eye for very important rules and missed authors." A. Craiutu, Springer.
(A. Craiutu Springer 2012-07-31)

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This idea have been linked to the nationalist philosopher Rudolf Kjellén in addition to with turn-of-the-century conservative proposals to supply houses and smallholdings for all, basically to counter emigration. fifty five Now the socialists sought to acceptable it for his or her personal reasons (although a few participants of the social gathering persisted to reject the expression, finding it too paternalistic). fifty six Hansson defined the undertaking therefore: the foundation of the house is neighborhood and togetherness. the great domestic doesn't realize any privileged or overlooked individuals, nor any favourite or stepchildren.

He proceeded to stumbled on the Mont Pèlerin Society – a selfdescribed ‘nonorganisation of individuals’,86 yet de facto an elite develop troop within the struggle of rules, particularly outfitted to have interaction in shut highbrow strive against at the controversial land among economics and politics. Hayek demanded that ‘we needs to bring up and teach a military of fighters for freedom’. He recommended a spotlight on intellectuals – professors, bureaucrats, academics and reporters – as ‘secondhand buyers in ideas’, who, based on him, may continually prove shaping public opinion in the end.

Fraenkel discerned the emergence of a ‘dual state’: a ‘normal’ country in keeping with conventional ‘positive legality’, and a hugely arbitrary one ruling through measures – what he exotic because the ‘Normative kingdom’ and the ‘Prerogative State’. 119 easily positioned: you could get married or be convicted for robbery in keeping with basic legislations that remained completely predictable; yet simple questions about who used to be fit or unfit to stay have been topic to arbitrary judgements by means of more and more chaotic bureaucracies operating at crosspurposes or attempting to outdo one another in ‘anticipating’ or practicing the Führer’s will.

Five Arendt recommend the concept that the emergence of the hundreds were a precondition of totalitarianism, with the hundreds characterised via a sense of being ‘superfluous’ and ‘selfless’, within the feel of getting no right self. She additionally insisted that ‘the leader attribute of the mass guy isn't brutality and backwardness, yet his isolation and shortage of standard relationships’. 6 now not every person used to be as relatively charitable to ‘mass man’. P RECONSTRUCTION inspiration 127 in keeping with the conflict, then, West eu highbrow existence went via one of those Indian summer season for defences of excessive tradition as a barrier to barbarism; Meinecke, for example, proposal there could be ‘Goethe groups’ prepared all throughout Germany.

26 Legitimacy, briefly, was once in response to monarchy’s usefulness for maintaining jointly the state or the empire. the recognition which constitutional monarchs sought (and usually obtained) was once now not an indication of elevated strength, then, yet a final result of diminishing political influence. 27 As Bagehot had anticipated, ‘the extra democratic we get, the extra we will get to love nation and express, that have ever happy the vulgar’. 28 And certainly, the pioneer of pursuing reputation for royalty, the British monarchy, finally reached what the historian David Cannadine has referred to as an ‘Olympus of ornamental, integrative impotence’.

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